A short story about greed, money games, lust, covetousness, and seduction by Whisperer Robert Chaen.

 

Wong Jeh Shyan stole someone’s wife, really?” the skeptic in me asked.

I attended “Dr” Wong Jeh Shyan’s First Miracles Of Capital in Indonesia on 3th – 5th  October 2018 (code: MOC J44 Jakarta). MOC was recommended to me by my good friend Tengku Badariah and Sazzy Falak (Precession Capital CEO “Nash” Nazril Idrus’ wife).

I must admit I myself made a very expensive RM14,998/ US$3,750 stupid mistake and an enormous life lesson because of my own logical fallacy.

I bought MOC because I trusted the credibility of 2 Celebrities who endorsed MOC.

But my “small” loss pales in comparison with many MOC investors who lost tens to hundreds of thousands ringgit and for high net-worth individuals, over US$300,000 loss from Wong Jeh Shyan and MOC-related unethical investments.

I noticed most MOC graduates enroll because their relative, friend, or a famous person recommended MOC to them. But mostly they did not do any due diligence and background checks.

I take full ownership that I stupidly signed up without doing my normal homework of simply googling Wong’s and MOC background. Anyone who just google search Wong Jeh Shyan for 5 minutes will notice alarm bells and red flags all over.

fire-alarm.jpg       kissclipart-jolly-roger-clipart-jolly-roger-pirate-flag-9475aa71111b2282.png


But I have nobody to blame but myself and my stupidity for joining Miracles Of Capital (MOC).

After 8 months of being a MOC Alumni, which included a good 6 months to get MOC toxics “cleansed and purified” out of my system, I wrote a series of exposés and professional reviews as an investigative journalist.

I believe I was the first ever person to do an expert review on Wong Jeh Shyan and his Miracles Of Capital. After losing their money, I discovered that most ex-MOC students simply give up and did not bother to share or report about their bad experiences, probably out of shame, or due to the non-confrontational Asian culture.

Most capital market professionals and finance students know that there is no such thing as ‘miracles of capital’. The only possible miracle of capital is compound interest.

Only unquestioning and loyal religious people believe in miracles. By using the word miracles, Wong Jeh Shyan is attracting unsophisticated, gullible entrepreneurs who tend to believe in false hopes, get rich quick promises, and MLM business cults.

Immediately after the exposés, some people asked me if “Dr” Wong Jeh Shyan and a prominent MOC graduate are having a secret love affair. I was totally taken by surprise as both of them hid their love affair very well within the MOC Alumni. I started to do my own investigative journalist research and private interviews.

Cheating hold hands2.jpeg

Wong Jeh Shyan and a MOC student had a secret love affair when both of them were still married in 2017 (a reconstruction scene)

 

Yes, indeed I can now confirm 100% that Wong Jeh Shyan and a MOC graduate were having an extramarital secret love affair when both of them were still married in 2017. There were witness claims and evidence by workers, ex-staff, MOC associates, and friends. Let’s call Wong Jeh Shyan’s Confidential Lover, CL. CL is beautiful, charming, confident, smart, dresses fashionably, and acts with an aura of a role model.

CL attended Wong’s MOC class around December 2016.

Wong Jeh Shyan's Fake Doctorate.jpg

Wong Jeh Shyan’s doctorate comes from Dadabhoy Institute of Higher Education (DIHE is not even a university). Click link Higher Education Commission (Pakistan) ban of Dadabhoy IHE: HEC has identified 155 Illegal University Campuses all across Pakistan

She was almost immediately smitten and charmed by Wong. She does not have a degree but did well as an entrepreneur. Wong was an architect. He call himself “Doctor Wong” but in reality Wong Jeh Shyan has a fake doctorate from Dadabhoy Institute of Higher Education, a ‘university’ banned in Pakistan.

Several public figures and politicians in Malaysia were exposed with false doctorates such as the once popular motivational speaker “Dr” Azizan Osman, who claimed he had doctorates from UKM and UKL.

Wong seduced CL, coveted, and stole someone’s wife.
Or, maybe it was CL who seduced Wong, coveted, and stole someone’s husband.

But it takes two to tango.
Whoever seduced who first, it doesn’t really matter.
This is definitely a scandal, morality, greed, lust, and integrity issue.

Wong convinced and brainwashed CL to believe only he can help her IPO in a ridiculous 4 years, and that MOC is the ONLY WAY to IPO. This exclusive fanatical belief makes MOC a MLM business cult.

CL is an owner of several fashion, beauty, and food outlet brands and companies. After attending MOC, CL created her SPV (Special Purpose Vehicle). Let’s call itFL since she is a Fashion Lover.

Her friends who are investors of FL contacted me after my exposé series on Wong Jeh Shyan first appeared in 24th June 2019. They told me they had not received any shareholder’s dividends. Her SPV’s first round fundraising was from late 2017 to early 2018 – over RM4 million was reportedly raised. FL has been actively fund-raising after the first round.

The 4 years is now 2 years left. CL is no way close to IPO. FL has no significant market share in the product category and has no PR-media presence. Like almost all MOC Alumni aspirators, she has not even passed Co-Founder funding stage. Yet CL and Wong continue to raise millions for her SPV.

Why are almost all MOC Alumni stuck and cannot go pass Co-Founder funding stage?

Professional Venture Capital and Private Equity firms will not invest in unproven, high risk SPV companies, with no corporate governance, no track record, no dividend payout to small investors (while key founders take all profits and funds), and no small shareholder protection – except for pseudo Private Equity firms (such as Precession Capital Bhd, Venture Equity Bhd) set up by MOC Alumni to serve only other MOC Alumni unsophisticated SPVs (such as FL).

When I video interviewed CL and 8 other Speakers in Ladies Powerhouse Conference in October 26th & 27th 2018, she claimed on camera she will IPO in 2022 in Singapore Exchange, hopefully as a US$1 Billion unicorn. I have since removed all MOC and Ladies Powerhouse videos from all my social media accounts because of integrity issues.

6. Ladies Powerhouse Conference Speakers. Connie Low and Wong Jeh Shyan sitting. (in Mandarin).jpg

Wong Jeh Shyan (seated, left) and CL with Ladies Powerhouse Speakers.

 

I was utterly surprised by CL and other Ladies Powerhouse Speakers who actually believe in their delusion or false hope that they will be a US$1 Billion unicorn. Now there are currently only 10 successful Unicorns (a unicorn is valued at over US$1 Billion) in the whole of S.E. Asia, and many of them have not even IPO-ed. We have heard about Grab, Go-Jek, Razer, and Lazada in the news but none of these 10 Ladies Powerhouse-MOC speakers and Wong have any significant over 50% market share, and none of them are high profile startups in the mainstream and business news.

Wong Jeh Shyan oversell and overkill IPO, get MOC students super crazy about IPO in the false hopes of a mega killing and super riches ROI.

Even Grab has not IPO after 7 years. Wong Jeh Shyan is wrong, IPO should never be the ultimate get rich quick endgame, but IPO can be used as one of many ways of fund raising – when the timing is right.

What delusional IPO money game are the charismatic Wong Jeh Shyan and his secret lover playing?

You can fool some people, some of the time.
But you can’t fool all people, all the time.

Many MOC alumni who knows CL shared that they were very surprised that CL filed for divorce, and the reason was rumored to be her being too involved in MOC and her IPO drive. But they felt the reason didn’t make any sense. Why would anyone give up a happy marriage just for a business ambition?

In 2017, many MOC Alumni were surprised that Wong began heavily pushing for MOC Alumni to invest in FL, and CL became the ‘poster girl’ of MOC.

Now in hind sight and with the critical information that they are secret lovers, the suspicion about their sexual intimacy all start to make sense.

Some friends and staff whispered to me that CL suddenly left a seemingly happy marriage and a happy family. She left the parenting care of their young children to her ex-husband. I hope she will not abandon her children.

In reality, CL was actually doing quite well before joining MOC – despite not having a university degree and not being proficient in English. She claimed her original fashion brand Max-tino was reported to be making RM20 million pa sales. This is enough to IPO in LEAP third board in Malaysia. She really didn’t need MOC. But now she is totally obsessed and stuck with Wong and MOC.

This is called ‘Sunk Costs’ Logical Fallacy which means one is so deeply involved and invested in a project, business, group, partner or lover that they are not willing to leave it even it was losing big money or it’s no longer viable. CL has put all her trust and all her business eggs in Wong’s MOC. She has become Wong’s secret lover and Wong’s key MLM business cult accomplice. She actively enrolled all her sisters, relatives, friends and associates to attend US$5,000 MOC courses, US$750 refresher courses, and MOC activities.

From my feedback from ex-MOC Alumni, they reveal that Wong is using CL and FL to ‘suck dry’ as much money from the Chinese and Chinese-speaking community in Malaysia, and Taiwan. Wong is also using “Nash” Nazril Idrus and Precession Capital Bhd. to suck dry as much money from the Malay and Bahasa-Malay speaking community.

But most of the 17 countries which MOC operates are not doing well. Because of Wong’s right hand man, Jimmy Phoon controversial removal of me from MOC Alumni Whatsapp groups, it affected the vital first MOC Indonesia group. It reportedly is not doing well, they lost a lot money in its second MOC Jakarta class in 2019, and there were no class in October 2019. Wong and Phoon are well known to remove any intelligent ‘dissident’ who dares to question them. Wong now focuses on parts of Malaysia, Taiwan, and Thailand.

Dr Wong as God of Wealth.jpg

Wong Jeh Shyan pretended to be “The God of Wealth”, and not respecting a critical Chinese tradition by celebrating Chinese New Year 2019 soon after his father’s death.

Throughout the Chinese New Year 2019 period, Wong Jeh Shyan pretended to be “The God of Wealth” many times – soon after his father died. In most Chinese families, there are no Chinese New Year celebrations when a parent or a very close family member dies 49 days to 3 months before CNY. This was so disrespectful of Wong and Wong supporters not to follow the Chinese culture. It further showed Wong’s true colors and unethical character.

Does Wong Jeh Shyan walk his talk? Let’s find out…

In Wong’s recent Good Bye 2019 message to MOC Alumni, he signed off,
“Still Walking the Talk…”

Then Jimmy Phoon, Wong’s right hand hatchet man repeated word for word without any changes like a mindless parrot and MOC zombie, “What contributions you want to give back to humanity at large”. Exactly the same question I pose back to Wong who secretly confides and boasts to others that he is a VULTURE Capitalist, a cunning corporate raider, and asset stripper.

MOC Vulture Capitalists.jpg

MOC Vulture Capitalists & the greedy MOC Money Game.

 

Now let’s not get too carried away to be a philanthropist like Bill & Melissa Gates which is Wong’s last powerful, moving, touching story in all MOC conferences – “to give back to humanity at large”.

I myself even cried during my MOC Jakarta conference when Wong reminded us of the Gates story. As an international media consultant, corporate trainer, speaker, and change expert myself, I noticed Wong does know how to manipulate and open up mindsets and hearts – vulnerable to his hidden ulterior motives.

Let’s start with a simple why doesn’t Wong give out dividends to small shareholders?

Why does Wong control all finances of key MOC First Level MLM Promoters like Precession Capital, Fashion Library, and other MOC Alumni projects, and suck the profits dry for him and the key Founders, and leave small investors with no dividends and leave them hanging on to the false hope and expectation of a huge US$1Billon Unicorn IPO, which is impossible to happen.

In Wong’s 2018 “doomsday”, pessimistic, cynical farewell message (which a big part was repeated in his 2019 ranting message), he ended with, quote:
“Every good thing must come to an end… Go well my friends, my students, my alumni. Fare well. On this, being my final message and note, I wish…”

If you’ve read this then, you would have the impression that this was Wong’s final farewell message and implied retirement. Previously for a few months his Facebook profile portrait was a morbid black and white (like those black and white obituary portraits), and various mopey and depressing postings and rantings. But, he was just getting sympathy and manipulating his MOC followers as a drama king, and using his own words, as an ‘energy vampire’.

“In Wong Jeh Shyan’s world, everything happens twice – differently; once in what Wong preaches, the second time is not practiced in reality.”

In other words, what Wong says in his MOC classes and what he actually does are totally different realities.
“Still walking the talk”, Wong Jeh Shyan?

Level 4 Red Dot MOC MLM Cult.jpg

Wong Jeh Shyan is still very much a Level 4 Red Dot MOC MLM Cult who has not passed the chasm, contrary to what he claims.

For example, Wong is still very much a Level 4 Red Dot who has not pass the chasm, contrary to his claims that he is a free, independent Level 6 Red Dot. His Red Dot is not outside the circle of operations, he is very much inside the circle. His First Level MOC MLM Promoters like Precession Capital and Fashion Library directly report to him, he totally controls and dictates his MOC group operations like an insecure vulture.

He crushes MOC disloyal dissidents and remove them, or he gets his right hand man Jimmy Phoon to do the dirty work, bullying, and tyranny. These are top 3 characteristic of a business MLM pyramid. And finally, just like a cult, MLMs can only exist with unquestioning devotion. This is why they so often use strong emotion and deflection to shut down any argument.

Indeed, I have no doubt that if you show this article to a friend in MOC MLM they’ll likely dismiss it as lies, rubbish or negativity. But ask them to factually rebut each point and they won’t be able to. Deep in denial, they’ll tell you how amazing their own MOC experience was, or that their MOC MLM is different. But it’s not.

Wong is the only speaker for MOC, only he profits the most sitting at the top of his MOC MLM business Cult, only he has the full authority to total finance control and profit taking in the MOC-related companies and promoters, and leaving small shareholders unprotected, high and dry.

 

MOC MLM Business Cult + Wong.jpg

Wong Jeh Shyan profits the most sitting at the top of his MOC MLM business Cult – with total financial control and profit-taking.

But Wong does not have his own office, he is a parasite, he uses other people’s offices, feeding on his students’ generosity.

Another case in point is Wong’s infamous Firewall method is actually to protect the profits and take out the millions of raised funds for himself and key Co-Founders, cut losses and run away, to corporate raid, strip all assets, and offer shares of a ‘empty shell’ Berhad to new, willing investors, to find new victims and new suckers from new MOC networkers’ unsuspecting friends and relatives, the circle goes on and on – until more ex-MOC students make a strong stand and do something about it, anything is better than doing nothing and feeling sorry for themselves.

Related image

MOC MLM Energy vampires and money-sucking vampires

Wong Jeh Shyan is not just an energy vampire, Wong is a money-sucking vampire. Don’t just believe what I wrote, do your own homework, ask the countless ex-MOC victims, ask the small shareholder if they received any dividends, but don’t ask the current MOC students, they are way too high on their false aspirations of being a US$1 Billion Unicorn, and it does takes a long, long time for victims to wise up and wake up when it’s too late.

IMG_1587

Many students continue believing in the false MOC promise of an IPO Unicorn pipe dream, like smoking an opium pipe.

In fact, many students don’t even realize and chose to continue believing in the false MOC promise of an IPO Unicorn pipe dream, like the fantasies induced by smoking an opium pipe during the 1800s.

How can Wong Jeh Shyan help anyone IPO, when he has no IPO track record?
There was only ONE known IPO by a MOC Alumni in MOC’s 10 years history and from a reported over 4,500 MOC students.

The one IPO was Smile-Link Healthcare Global Bhd by Dato’ Rayson Wong. It was a penny stock (closed at 12.5 sen), listed in Leading Entrepreneur Accelerator Platform (LEAP) in April 2019, the easiest to public list in the 3rd Board of Bursa, Malaysia’s stock exchange. It’s definitely not valued at US$1 billion, not even RM10 million at IPO.

Go ask any MOC Promoter or student, but no one can confidently tell you how many IPOs are by MOC Alumni. Wong claimed there were 16 IPOs by MOC Alumni but avoided to show any specific list when asked.

How LOW can you go, Wong Jeh Shyan?
As low as Jho Low, the mastermind of the world’s largest $4.5 Billion kleptocracy scandal.

As low as the lies and deception of Najib Razak who blatantly sweared an oath, known as ‘Sumpah Laknat’, at Masjid Jamek after the Friday prayers that he did not order the murder of Altantuya. Of course, Najib did not kill Altantuya, personally. Hitman Azilah Hadri did. But it is so obvious who really ORDERED the murder of Altantuya, and who have the Ministry of Defence authority and access to C4 military-grade explosives.

1MDB was created by Najib Razak to promote economic development in Malaysia through global partnerships and foreign direct investment, and its funds were intended to be used for improving the well-being of the Malaysian people. BUT instead, as detailed in United States Department of Justice‘s largest ever kleptocracy case, Najib, 1MDB officials and their associates allegedly misappropriated more than US$4.5 billion.

MOC is like a mini-1MDB.

Similarly, MOC was created by Wong Jeh Shyan to help entrepreneurs. BUT instead, Wong and his MOC associates have raised millions of funds but in reality small shareholders allegedly have complained that they have not received any dividends or return of investment.

Instead of improving the well-being of MOC Alumni students, in reality there are 5 multiple-level damages to student’s well-being by Wong Jeh Shyan and Miracles Of Capital.

Wong Jeh Shyan is like a mini-Jho Low.
A very smart, seductive and cunning man with no integrity.

Like Najib & Rosmah, Wong and CL are what I call a9-tailed Daji Fox Couple“.

According to Chinese legend, Daji was a seductress who rose from a minor concubine to become the queen of King Zhou of Shang, the last king of the Shang dynasty in ancient China. She is considered a classic example of how a beautiful woman can cause the downfall of a dynasty in Chinese culture. Daji was possessed by an evil nine-tailed fox spirit. The Daji character could use any of her 9 tails to seduce anyone.

My interpretation of the 9 tails of Daji is symbolic of the 9 Vices of lust, greed, arrogance, anger, jealousy, laziness, gluttony, addiction, and attachment.

 

How Rosmah changed from good to bad Daji.jpg

How Rosmah Mansor changed from a good Kitsune Fox to a bad Daji Fox

 

Like Rosmah Mansor, I sense CL was originally a good fox (known as Kitsune, the good white fox), but became tainted and influenced by Wong’s bad and dark Daji energies.

Even the Devil Quotes Scriptures

Like most conmen, Wong likes to bring God and religion into his narrative – to give the false perception of holier-than-thou, that he is morally superior to others.

Wong Jeh Shyan is a hypocrite of the worst type.
If Wong truly follows his Vipasanna Buddhism, or any religion for that matter, if he is “still walking the talk”, Wong would not have stolen someone’s wife. Period.

Jho Low.jpg

Jho Low (his US$250 million superyacht called Equanimity, was seized) and Wong Jeh Shyan think alike in greedy money games aspirations. Wong is the master in seducing people to desire a rich lifestyle. “Join MOC and you’ll be the next TYCOON!” shouts the emcee, Cynthia Chiam in MOC conferences.


“Once you have eaten the cake, it’s gone. You find other people’s new cakes to eat. That’s not equanimity or aspiration, that’s greed and lust.” ~ Robert Chaen

Wong loves to quote about equanimity and aspiration.
Jho Low (his US$250 million superyacht called Equanimity, was seized) and Wong Jeh Shyan think alike in greedy money games.

Wong Jeh Shyan secret scandal destroyed CL’s marriage.

Wong made CL his secret lover and his favorite MOC MLM business cult accomplice.

MOC are takers, not givers, always enrolling new victims and new networks.

Be warned, like nearly all business MLM cults or religious cults, if you are not contributing to MOC (let’s be clear this is not “contributing to humanity at large”), and if they cannot continue taking advantage of your giving and your cash generosity, they will cut you off as a liability.

Exploited. Wasted. Abandoned.

When you finally realize you’ve been exploited, wasted your time and money in repeating the same MOC refresher courses at US$1,000 each time, when you are in heavy debts, when you did not get your promised dividends in MOC project investments, when they suck your gravy train dry, you will be left behind and be abandoned when they find YOU are no longer useful or profitable to them, Wong Jeh Shyan and MOC will simply MOVE ON, find, and plunder new victims in new entrepreneur networks, in new countries, change new names and branding, raise millions of new funds, make false promises of get rich quick IPO aspiration, and cover up their past tracks and profiles.

 

Image result for walk away from temptation, greed

Walk away from greed, pride, lust, anger, envy, and laziness while you still can. Forget get rich quick, capital & money games like MOC. Cut the losses and stop creating more Karma.

As an ex-MOC Alumni, my advice to MOC Alumni students, I would highly recommend to leave Wong Jeh Shyan and MOC – to walk away from greed, pride, lust, anger, envy, and laziness while you still can. Forget get rich quick, capital & delusional IPO money games like MOC. Entrepreneurship is hard work and many long hours, blood, sweat, and tears, with no guarantee of success.

Cut the losses and stop creating more Karma.

The life of MOC alumni should be much better when they leave the false Unicorn IPO hope and the delusional, distracting, seductive world of Wong Jeh Shyan and MOC.

There are only a selected handful of professional and legal incubators, marketers, investment, licensed and registered Venture Capital and Private Equity firms who can help you in your business.

There are several proven, capital market methods in the marketplace which are way much better than the useless generic MOC knowledge and the fanatical, crazy obsession, and get rich quick false promises with MOC’s unworkable Financial Road Map (FRM) to IPO.

Don’t believe this? Show MOC materials and Wong’s FRM to a professional, licensed Capital Market Expert. I did, to CMEs from USA, Hong Kong, Singapore, EU, and London, they were all shocked that so many entrepreneurs are so gullible and blinded by greed in their sincere aspiration to get rich quick on their Road to IPO.
They are not to be able to see through the deceptive MOC Get-Rich-Quick FRM to IPO money game and that their useless, generic FRM will NOT work in the real marketing, capital, and finance world.

Many MOC alumni have spent so much “sunk costs” in investments, and are too deeply in denial and too involved in MOC to cut their losses and move on. Being brainwashed by Wong Jeh Shyan that they are a “Game Theory Investor”, they choose to get high, intoxicated, and continue dreaming that they will be the next tycoon, without doing any real work.

 

He who holds the ladder is as bad as the thief.jpg

“When you support a thief, you are as bad as the thief.
You, your family, and community will receive the return of bad Karma of the thief.”
~ Robren

Help spread this critical news and STOP Wong Jeh Shyan and the MOC Money Game cancer from conning more new gullible students and investors.

How LOW Can You Go, Wong Jeh Shyan?
As low as Connie LOW Lai Youn, Wong Jeh Shyan’s secret lover.

PA260112.JPG

______________________________________________
ACKNOWLEDGMENT TO THOSE WHO SHARED THEIR STORY:
Many thanks for having the courage to share your story and verified information with Robert in Private & Confidential.
NOTICE TO MOC VICTIMS:
You are not alone. There are many other MOC victims. If you have lost money in investing in MOC-related projects, pm Robert in P&C.
______________________________________________

Written: Robert Chaen
Investigative Journalist, International ScamBuster, CultBuster, CEO-Celebrity Whisperer.

Published: 18th January 2020.
Updated: 18th February 2020.

__________________________________________________________

Listen to SoundCloud audio of the above article:
https://soundcloud.com/robertchaen/wong-jeh-shyans-secret-lover-how-low-can-you-go

__________________________________________________________

This article is Google Translated in MANDARIN:

黄哲贤 秘密情人:你能走多低


This article is Google Translated in MALAY:

Kekasih Rahsia Wong Jeh Shyan: Berapa Rendahkah Anda Boleh Pergi?

__________________________________________________________

Review Exposé: Wong Jeh Shyan has a FAKE Doctorate from Pakistan, and Miracles Of Capital’s 13 Legal But Unethical Practices (MOC)
Stats: over 1,600 views, ranked #3 in Google search for “Wong Jeh Shyan”.
_________________________________

 

_______________________________________________________________________

5 Multiple-Level Damages by Dr Wong

5 Multiple-Level Damages to MOC Alumni’s Well-Being by Dr Wong Jeh Shyan and Miracles Of Capital

_______________________________________________________________________

Jimmy Phoon can remove a Member

Jimmy Phoon, Dr Wong Jeh Shyan’s right hand man, is an uncouth bad character and a bully who can’t spell right, write, debate, or speak professionally in Miracles Of Capital (MOC).

_______________________________________________________________________

ScamBusters Logo.jpg

Join our ScamBusters Facebook Page:
https://www.facebook.com/ScamBusters-394277514535176/

 

_____________________________________________________________________

Related article on Logical Fallacies >>

Elon Musk.jpg

Elon Musk, Tesla’s CE, has made plenty of bold predictions (e.g. driverless taxis). They don’t always come true. A Case Study in Logical Fallacies of CEOs’ speeches and predictions.

_____________________________________________________________________

“Dr’ Wong Jeh Shyan quote extensively Masayoshi Son and Softbank. But read about Softbank’s “Stupid Money” >>

Why the Uber I.P.O. Fail is The Best Lesson for Softbank’s Unrealistic Promises on ROI (By Harvard Professor)

 

___________________________________________________________

Gary King

The #MeToo Movement brought down Tony Robbins plus the Shocking Exposé by former Director of Security Gary King

___________________________________________________________